The burial of Tutankhamun — in which his penis was mummified erect — is but one example of how important fertility was in the rituals and beliefs of the ancient Egyptians.The country's ancient rulers are referred to today as "pharaohs," although in ancient times they each used a series of names as part of a royal titular, wrote Ronald Leprohon, an Egyptology professor at the University of Toronto, in his book "The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary" (Society of Biblical Literature, 2013).These early rulers include Iry-Hor, who, according to recently discovered inscriptions, founded Memphis, a city that served as Egypt’s capital for much of its history.When and how Egypt was united is unclear and is a matter of debate among archaeologists and historians.Egypt’s climate was much wetter in prehistoric times than it is today.This means that some areas that are now barren desert were fertile.
Villages dependent on agriculture began to appear in Egypt about 7,000 years ago, and the civilization’s earliest written inscriptions date back about 5,200 years; they discuss the early rulers of Egypt.
During this time cities and civilizations across the Middle East had been destroyed by a wave of people from the Aegean, whom modern-day scholars sometimes call the "Sea Peoples." While Egyptian rulers claimed to have defeated the Sea Peoples in battle, it didn’t prevent Egyptian civilization from also collapsing. C.) are often referred to as the "late period" by scholars.
The loss of trade routes and revenue may have played a role in the weakening of Egypt’s central government. Egypt was sometimes under the control of foreign powers during this period.
Dynasties 12, 13, as well as part of the 11 are often called the "Middle Kingdom" by scholars and lasted from ca. Among the surviving texts is the Edwin Smith surgical papyrus, which includes a variety of medical treatments that modern-day medical doctors have hailed as being advanced for their time.
Dynasties 14-17 are often lumped into the "second intermediate period" by modern-day scholars.